If you are a U.S. citizen, you may receive your Social Security Disability payments outside the U.S. as long as you are eligible for them.
However, there are a few countries where Social Security will not send payments to (like Cuba and North Korea).
If you are a citizen of one of the countries listed on the following webpage, then you should have no problems receiving your payments while living outside the U.S. (Unless you are receiving your payments as a dependent or survivor, in which case you will need to meet additional requirements.)
The Social Security Administration will consider you “outside the US” if you are out of the country for more than 30 days. In order to be considered “back in the US”, you need to be back in the country for more than 30 days.
There is a different set of rules regarding “living outside the US” for Supplemental Security Income (SSI) recipients. SSI is not available to anyone living outside the US (with a few exceptions for students, and children of military parents).